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JEL Classification Codes
The JEL Classification
System is a subject classification system for economics derived from the Journal of Economic Literature of the American Economic Association. (See also Wikipedia.)

A: General Economics and Teaching 
A1: General Economics
A10: General
A11: Role of Economics; Role of Economists; Market for Economists
A12: Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
A13: Relation of Economics to Social Values
A14: Sociology of Economics
A19: Other
A2: Economic Education and Teaching of Economics
A20: General
A21: Pre-college
A22: Undergraduate
A23: Graduate
A29: Other
A3: Collective Works
A30: General
A31: Collected Writings of Individuals
A32: Collective Volumes
A33: Handbooks
A39: Other
B: History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches
B0: General
B00: General
B1: History of Economic Thought through 1925
B10: General
B11: Preclassical (Ancient, Medieval, Mercantilist, Physiocratic)
B12: Classical (includes Adam Smith)
B13: Neoclassical through 1925 (Austrian, Marshallian, Walrasian, Stockholm School)
B14: Socialist;Marxist
B15: Historical; Institutional;Evolutionary
B16: Quantitative and Mathematical
B19: Other
B2: History of Economic Thought since 1925
B20: General
B21: Microeconomics
B22: Macroeconomics
B23: Econometrics;Quantitative and Mathematical Studies
B24: Socialist;Marxist;Sraffian
B25: Historical;Institutional;Evolutionary;Austrian
B26: Financial Economics
B29: Other
B3: History of Economic Thought: Individuals
B30: General
B31: Individuals
B32: Obituaries
B4: Economic Methodology
B40: General
B41: Economic Methodology
B49: Other
B5: Current Heterodox Approaches
B50: General
B51: Socialist;Marxian;Sraffian
B52: Institutional;Evolutionary
B53: Austrian
B54: Feminist Economics
B59: Other
C: Mathematical and Quantitative Methods
C0: General

C00: General
C01: Econometrics
C02: Mathematical Methods
C1: Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
C10: General
C11: Bayesian Analysis: General
C12: Hypothesis Testing: General
C13: Estimation: General
C14: Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
C15: Statistical Simulation Methods: General
C18: Methodological Issues: General
C19: Other
C2: Single Equation Models;Single Variables
C20: General
C21: Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models;Treatment Effect Models;Quantile Regressions
C22: Time-Series Models;Dynamic Quantile Regressions;Dynamic Treatment Effect Models;Diffusion Processes
C23: Panel Data Models;Spatio-temporal Models
C24: Truncated and Censored Models;Switching Regression Models
C25: Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models;Discrete Regressors;Proportions
C26: Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
C29: Other
C3: Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models;Multiple Variables
C30: General
C31: Cross-Sectional Models;Spatial Models;Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions;Social Interaction Models
C32: Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions;Dynamic Treatment Effect Models;Diffusion Processes
C33: Panel Data Models; Spatio-temporal Models
C34: Truncated and Censored Models;Switching Regression Models
C35: Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors;Proportions
C36: Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
C38: Classification Methods; Cluster Analysis; Principal Components;Factor Models
C39: Other
C4: Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics
C40: General
C41: Duration Analysis;Optimal Timing Strategies
C43: Index Numbers and Aggregation
C44: Operations Research; Statistical Decision Theory
C45: Neural Networks and Related Topics
C46: Specific Distributions;Specific Statistics
C49: Other
C5: Econometric Modeling
C50: General
C51: Model Construction and Estimation
C52: Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
C53: Forecasting and Prediction Methods; Simulation Methods
C54: Quantitative Policy Modeling
C55: Modeling with Large Data Sets
C57: Econometrics of Games
C58: Financial Econometrics
C59: Other
C6: Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling
C60: General
C61: Optimization Techniques; Programming Models;Dynamic Analysis
C62: Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium
C63: Computational Techniques;Simulation Modeling
C65: Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools
C67: Input–Output Models
C68: Computable General Equilibrium Models
C69: Other
C7: Game Theory and Bargaining Theory
C70: General
C71: Cooperative Games
C72: Noncooperative Games
C73: Stochastic and Dynamic Games; Evolutionary Games;Repeated Games
C78: Bargaining Theory;Matching Theory
C79: Other
C8: Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology;Computer Programs
C80: General
C81: Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data; Data Access
C82: Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data;Data Access
C83: Survey Methods;Sampling Methods
C87: Econometric Software
C88: Other Computer Software
C89: Other
C9: Design of Experiments
C90: General
C91: Laboratory, Individual Behavior
C92: Laboratory, Group Behavior
C93: Field Experiments
C99: Other
D: Microeconomics
D0: General
D00: General
D01: Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
D02: Institutions: Design, Formation, and Operations
D03: Behavioral Microeconomics;Underlying Principles
D04: Microeconomic Policy: Formulation;Implementation;Evaluation
D1: Household Behavior and Family Economics
D10: General
D11: Consumer Economics: Theory
D12: Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
D13: Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation
D14: Household Saving; Personal Finance
D18: Consumer Protection
D19: Other
D2: Production and Organizations
D20: General
D21: Firm Behavior: Theory
D22: Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
D23: Organizational Behavior;Transaction Costs;Property Rights
D24: Production;Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity;Capacity
D29: Other
D3: Distribution
D30: General
D31: Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
D33: Factor Income Distribution
D39: Other
D4: Market Structure and Pricing
D40: General
D41: Perfect Competition
D42: Monopoly
D43: Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
D44: Auctions
D45: Rationing;Licensing
D46: Value Theory
D47: Market Design
D49: Other
D5: General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium
D50: General
D51: Exchange and Production Economies
D52: Incomplete Markets
D53: Financial Markets
D57: Input–Output Tables and Analysis
D58: Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
D59: Other
D6: Welfare Economics
D60: General
D61: Allocative Efficiency; Cost–Benefit Analysis
D62: Externalities
D63: Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
D64: Altruism;Philanthropy
D69: Other
D7: Analysis of Collective Decision-Making
D70: General
D71: Social Choice; Clubs; Committees; Associations
D72: Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
D73: Bureaucracy;Administrative Processes in Public Organizations; Corruption
D74: Conflict;Conflict Resolution;Alliances
D78: Positive Analysis of Policy Formulation and Implementation
D79: Other
D8: Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty
D80: General
D81: Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
D82: Asymmetric and Private Information; Mechanism Design
D83: Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge;Communication; Belief
D84: Expectations; Speculations
D85: Network Formation and Analysis: Theory
D86: Economics of Contract: Theory
D87: Neuroeconomics
D89: Other
D9: Intertemporal Choice
D90: General
D91: Intertemporal Household Choice; Life Cycle Models and Saving
D92: Intertemporal Firm Choice, Investment, Capacity, and Financing
D99: Other
E: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics
E0: General
E00: General
E01: Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth; Environmental Accounts
E02: Institutions and the Macroeconomy
E03: Behavioral Macroeconomics
E1: General Aggregative Models
E10: General
E11: Marxian; Sraffian;Institutional;Evolutionary
E12: Keynes;Keynesian; Post-Keynesian
E13: Neoclassical
E16: Social Accounting Matrix
E17: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E19: Other
E2: Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy
E20: General
E21: Consumption;Saving; Wealth
E22: Capital; Investment; Capacity
E23: Production
E24: Employment; Unemployment;Wages;Intergenerational Income Distribution;Aggregate Human Capital
E25: Aggregate Factor Income Distribution
E26: Informal Economy;Underground Economy
E27: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E29: Other
E3: Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles
E30: General
E31: Price Level;Inflation; Deflation
E32: Business Fluctuations;Cycles
E37: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E39: Other
E4: Money and Interest Rates
E40: General
E41: Demand for Money
E42: Monetary Systems;Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System; Payment Systems
E43: Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
E44: Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
E47: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E49: Other
E5: Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
E50: General
E51: Money Supply; Credit;Money Multipliers
E52: Monetary Policy
E58: Central Banks and Their Policies
E59: Other
E6: Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
E60: General
E61: Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination
E62: Fiscal Policy
E63: Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy;Stabilization;Treasury Policy
E64: Incomes Policy;Price Policy
E65: Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
E66: General Outlook and Conditions
E69: Other
F: International Economics
F0: General

F00: General
F01: Global Outlook
F02: International Economic Order
F1: Trade
F10: General
F11: Neoclassical Models of Trade
F12: Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
F13: Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
F14: Empirical Studies of Trade
F15: Economic Integration
F16: Trade and Labor Market Interactions
F17: Trade Forecasting and Simulation
F18: Trade and Environment
F19: Other
F2: International Factor Movements and International Business
F20: General
F21: International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
F22: International Migration
F23: Multinational Firms ? International Business
F24: Remittances
F29: Other
F3: International Finance
F30: General
F31: Foreign Exchange
F32: Current Account Adjustment;Short-Term Capital Movements
F33: International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
F34: International Lending and Debt Problems
F35: Foreign Aid
F36: Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
F37: International Finance Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
F38: International Financial Policy: Financial Transactions Tax; Capital Controls
F39: Other
F4: Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
F40: General
F41: Open Economy Macroeconomics
F42: International Policy Coordination and Transmission
F43: Economic Growth of Open Economies
F44: International Business Cycles
F47: Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
F49: Other
F5: International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy
F50: General
F51: International Conflicts;Negotiations; Sanctions
F52: National Security;Economic Nationalism
F53: International Agreements and Observance; International Organizations
F54: Colonialism; Imperialism; Postcolonialism
F55: International Institutional Arrangements
F59: Other
F6: Economic Impacts of Globalization
F60: General
F61: Microeconomic Impacts
F62: Macroeconomic Impacts
F63: Economic Development
F64: Environment
F65: Finance
F66: Labor
F68: Policy
F69: Other
G: Financial Economics
G0: General
G00: General
G01: Financial Crises
G02: Behavioral Finance: Underlying Principles
G1: General Financial Markets
G10: General
G11: Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
G12: Asset Pricing;Trading Volume;Bond Interest Rates
G13: Contingent Pricing;Futures Pricing
G14: Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
G15: International Financial Markets
G17: Financial Forecasting and Simulation
G18: Government Policy and Regulation
G19: Other
G2: Financial Institutions and Services
G20: General
G21: Banks ? Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions;Mortgages
G22: Insurance; Insurance Companies; Actuarial Studies
G23: Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
G24: Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage; Ratings and Ratings Agencies
G28: Government Policy and Regulation
G29: Other
G3: Corporate Finance and Governance
G30: General
G31: Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies;Capacity
G32: Financing Policy;Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure;Value of Firms; Goodwill
G33: Bankruptcy; Liquidation
G34: Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring;Corporate Governance
G35: Payout Policy
G38: Government Policy and Regulation
G39: Other
H: Public Economics
H0: General

H00: General
H1: Structure and Scope of Government
H10: General
H11: Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government
H12: Crisis Management
H19: Other
H2: Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
H20: General
H21: Efficiency; Optimal Taxation
H22: Incidence
H23: Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
H24: Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
H25: Business Taxes and Subsidies
H26: Tax Evasion
H27: Other Sources of Revenue
H29: Other
H3: Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents
H30: General
H31: Household
H32: Firm
H39: Other
H4: Publicly Provided Goods
H40: General
H41: Public Goods
H42: Publicly Provided Private Goods
H43: Project Evaluation; Social Discount Rate
H44: Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets
H49: Other
H5: National Government Expenditures and Related Policies
H50: General
H51: Government Expenditures and Health
H52: Government Expenditures and Education
H53: Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
H54: Infrastructures; Other Public Investment and Capital Stock
H55: Social Security and Public Pensions
H56: National Security and War
H57: Procurement
H59: Other
H6: National Budget, Deficit, and Debt
H60: General
H61: Budget;Budget Systems
H62: Deficit ; Surplus
H63: Debt;Debt Management;Sovereign Debt
H68: Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits, and Debt
H69: Other
H7: State and Local Government;Intergovernmental Relations
H70: General
H71: State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
H72: State and Local Budget and Expenditures
H73: Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects
H74: State and Local Borrowing
H75: State and Local Government: Health; Education; Welfare; Public Pensions
H76: State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories
H77: Intergovernmental Relations; Federalism; Secession
H79: Other
H8: Miscellaneous Issues
H80: General
H81: Governmental Loans;Loan Guarantees; Credits;Grants; Bailouts
H82: Governmental Property
H83: Public Administration; Public Sector Accounting and Audits
H84: Disaster Aid
H87: International Fiscal Issues; International Public Goods
H89: Other
I: Health, Education, and Welfare
I0: General

I00: General
I1: Health
I10: General
I11: Analysis of Health Care Markets
I12: Health Production
I13: Health Insurance, Public and Private
I14: Health and Inequality
I15: Health and Economic Development
I18: Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
I19: Other
I2: Education and Research Institutions
I20: General
I21: Analysis of Education
I22: Educational Finance;Financial Aid
I23: Higher Education; Research Institutions
I24: Education and Inequality
I25: Education and Economic Development
I28: Government Policy
I29: Other
I3: Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
I30: General
I31: General Welfare, Well-Being
I32: Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
I38: Government Policy; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
I39: Other
J: Labor and Demographic Economics
J0: General

J00: General
J01: Labor Economics: General
J08: Labor Economics Policies
J1: Demographic Economics
J10: General
J11: Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
J12: Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure; Domestic Abuse
J13: Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
J14: Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped; Non-Labor Market Discrimination
J15: Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
J16: Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
J17: Value of Life; Forgone Income
J18: Public Policy
J19: Other
J2: Demand and Supply of Labor
J20: General
J21: Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
J22: Time Allocation and Labor Supply
J23: Labor Demand
J24: Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
J26: Retirement; Retirement Policies
J28: Safety; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy
J29: Other
J3: Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
J30: General
J31: Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
J32: Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits; Retirement Plans; Private Pensions
J33: Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
J38: Public Policy
J39: Other
J4: Particular Labor Markets
J40: General
J41: Labor Contracts
J42: Monopsony; Segmented Labor Markets
J43: Agricultural Labor Markets
J44: Professional Labor Markets; Occupational Licensing
J45: Public Sector Labor Markets
J46: Informal Labor Markets
J47: Coercive Labor Markets
J48: Public Policy
J49: Other
J5: Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining
J50: General
J51: Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects
J52: Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation; Collective Bargaining
J53: Labor–Management Relations; Industrial Jurisprudence
J54: Producer Cooperatives; Labor Managed Firms; Employee Ownership
J58: Public Policy
J59: Other
J6: Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
J60: General
J61: Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
J62: Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational Mobility
J63: Turnover;Vacancies; Layoffs
J64: Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
J65: Unemployment Insurance ? Severance Pay; Plant Closings
J68: Public Policy
J69: Other
J7: Labor Discrimination
J70: General
J71: Discrimination
J78: Public Policy
J79: Other
J8: Labor Standards: National and International
J80: General
J81: Working Conditions
J82: Labor Force Composition
J83: Workers' Rights
J88: Public Policy
J89: Other
K: Law and Economics
K0: General
K00: General
K1: Basic Areas of Law
K10: General
K11: Property Law
K12: Contract Law
K13: Tort Law and Product Liability; Forensic Economics
K14: Criminal Law
K19: Other
K2: Regulation and Business Law
K20: General
K21: Antitrust Law
K22: Business and Securities Law
K23: Regulated Industries and Administrative Law
K29: Other
K3: Other Substantive Areas of Law
K30: General
K31: Labor Law
K32: Environmental, Health, and Safety Law
K33: International Law
K34: Tax Law
K35: Personal Bankruptcy Law
K36: Family and Personal Law
K37: Immigration Law
K39: Other
K4: Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior
K40: General
K41: Litigation Process
K42: Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
K49: Other
L: Industrial Organization
L0: General
L00: General
L1: Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance
L10: General
L11: Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
L12: Monopoly;Monopolization Strategies
L13: Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
L14: Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation; Networks
L15: Information and Product Quality; Standardization and Compatibility
L16: Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics: Industrial Structure and Structural Change; Industrial Price Indices
L17: Open Source Products and Markets
L19: Other
L2: Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
L20: General
L21: Business Objectives of the Firm
L22: Firm Organization and Market Structure
L23: Organization of Production
L24: Contracting Out; Joint Ventures; Technology Licensing
L25: Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope
L26: Entrepreneurship
L29: Other
L3: Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise
L30: General
L31: Nonprofit Institutions; NGOs
L32: Public Enterprises; Public-Private Enterprises
L33: Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises and Nonprofit Institutions; Privatization; Contracting Out
L38: Public Policy
L39: Other
L4: Antitrust Issues and Policies
L40: General
L41: Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices
L42: Vertical Restraint; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts
L43: Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation
L44: Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprises, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations
L49: Other
L5: Regulation and Industrial Policy
L50: General
L51: Economics of Regulation
L52: Industrial Policy; Sectoral Planning Methods
L53: Enterprise Policy
L59: Other
L6: Industry Studies: Manufacturing
L60: General
L61: Metals and Metal Products; Cement; Glass; Ceramics
L62: Automobiles; Other Transportation Equipment
L63: Microelectronics; Computers; Communications Equipment
L64: Other Machinery; Business Equipment; Armaments
L65: Chemicals Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology
L66: Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco; Wine and Spirits
L67: Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather
L68: Appliances; Furniture; Other Consumer Durables
L69: Other
L7: Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction
L70: General
L71: Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels
L72: Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources
L73: Forest Products
L74: Construction
L78: Government Policy
L79: Other
L8: Industry Studies: Services
L80: General
L81: Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce
L82: Entertainment; Media
L83: Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
L84: Personal, Professional, and Business Services
L85: Real Estate Services
L86: Information and Internet Services; Computer Software
L87: Postal and Delivery Services
L88: Government Policy
L89: Other
L9: Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities
L90: General
L91: Transportation: General
L92: Railroads and Other Surface Transportation
L93: Air Transportation
L94: Electric Utilities
L95: Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities
L96: Telecommunications
L97: Utilities: General
L98: Government Policy
L99: Other
M: Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting
M0: General
M00: General
M1: Business Administration
M10: General
M11: Production Management
M12: Personnel Management; Executives; Executive Compensation
M13: New Firms; Startups
M14: Corporate Culture; Diversity; Social Responsibility
M15: IT Management
M16: International Business Administration
M19: Other
M2: Business Economics
M20: General
M21: Business Economics
M29: Other
M3: Marketing and Advertising
M30: General
M31: Marketing
M37: Advertising
M38: Government Policy and Regulation
M39: Other
M4: Accounting and Auditing
M40: General
M41: Accounting
M42: Auditing
M48: Government Policy and Regulation
M49: Other
M5: Personnel Economics
M50: General
M51: Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions
M52: Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects
M53: Training
M54: Labor Management
M55: Labor Contracting Devices
M59: Other
N: Economic History
N0: General
N00: General
N01: Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods
N1: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations
N10: General, International, or Comparative
N11: U.S.;Canada: Pre-1913
N12: U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N13: Europe: Pre-1913
N14: Europe: 1913–
N15: Asia including Middle East
N16: Latin America; Caribbean
N17: Africa; Oceania
N2: Financial Markets and Institutions
N20: General, International, or Comparative
N21: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N22: U.S.;Canada: 1913–
N23: Europe: Pre-1913
N24: Europe: 1913–
N25: Asia including Middle East
N26: Latin America; Caribbean
N27: Africa; Oceania
N3: Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy
N30: General, International, or Comparative
N31: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N32: U.S.; Canada: 1913-
N33: Europe: Pre-1913
N34: Europe: 1913-
N35: Asia including Middle East
N36: Latin America; Caribbean
N37: Africa;Oceania
N4: Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation
N40: General, International, or Comparative
N41: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N42: U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N43: Europe: Pre-1913
N44: Europe: 1913–
N45: Asia including Middle East
N46: Latin America; Caribbean
N47: Africa; Oceania
N5: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries
N50: General, International, or Comparative
N51: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N52: U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N53: Europe: Pre-1913
N54: Europe: 1913–
N55: Asia including Middle East
N56: Latin America; Caribbean
N57: Africa; Oceania
N6: Manufacturing and Construction
N60: General, International, or Comparative
N61: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N62: U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N63: Europe: Pre-1913
N64: Europe: 1913–
N65: Asia including Middle East
N66: Latin America; Caribbean
N67: Africa; Oceania
N7: Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services
N70: General, International, or Comparative
N71: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N72: U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N73: Europe: Pre-1913
N74: Europe: 1913–
N75: Asia including Middle East
N76: Latin America; Caribbean
N77: Africa; Oceania
N8: Micro-Business History
N80: General, International, or Comparative
N81: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N82: U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N83: Europe: Pre-1913
N84: Europe: 1913–
N85: Asia including Middle East
N86: Latin America; Caribbean
N87: Africa; Oceania
N9: Regional and Urban History
N90: General, International, or Comparative
N91: U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
N92: U.S.; Canada: 1913–
N93: Europe: Pre-1913
N94: Europe: 1913–
N95: Asia including Middle East
N96: Latin America; Caribbean
N97: Africa; Oceania
O: Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth
O1: Economic Development
O10: General
O11: Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
O12: Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
O13: Agriculture; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products
O14: Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
O15: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
O16: Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
O17: Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
O18: Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
O19: International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations
O2: Development Planning and Policy
O20: General
O21: Planning Models; Planning Policy
O22: Project Analysis
O23: Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development
O24: Trade Policy; Factor Movement Policy; Foreign Exchange Policy
O25: Industrial Policy
O29: Other
O3: Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights
O30: General
O31: Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
O32: Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
O33: Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
O34: Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
O38: Government Policy
O39: Other
O4: Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity
O40: General
O41: One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models
O42: Monetary Growth Models
O43: Institutions and Growth
O44: Environment and Growth
O47: Measurement of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence
O49: Other
O5: Economywide Country Studies
O50: General
O51: U.S.; Canada
O52: Europe
O53: Asia including Middle East
O54: Latin America; Caribbean
O55: Africa
O56: Oceania
O57: Comparative Studies of Countries
P: Economic Systems
P0: General
P00: General
P1: Capitalist Systems
P10: General
P11: Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P12: Capitalist Enterprises
P13: Cooperative Enterprises
P14: Property Rights
P16: Political Economy
P17: Performance and Prospects
P19: Other
P2: Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies
P20: General
P21: Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P22: Prices
P23: Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population
P24: National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation
P25: Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics
P26: Political Economy; Property Rights
P27: Performance and Prospects
P28: Natural Resources; Energy; Environment
P29: Other
P3: Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions
P30: General
P31: Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions
P32: Collectives; Communes; Agriculture
P33: International Trade, Finance, Investment, Relations, and Aid
P34: Financial Economics
P35: Public Economics
P36: Consumer Economics; Health; Education and Training; Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty
P37: Legal Institutions; Illegal Behavior
P39: Other
P4: Other Economic Systems
P40: General
P41: Planning, Coordination, and Reform
P42: Productive Enterprises; Factor and Product Markets; Prices; Population
P43: Public Economics; Financial Economics
P44: National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation
P45: International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid
P46: Consumer Economics; Health; Education and Training; Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty
P47: Performance and Prospects
P48: Political Economy; Legal Institutions; Property Rights; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Regional Studies
P49: Other
P5: Comparative Economic Systems
P50: General
P51: Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems
P52: Comparative Studies of Particular Economies
P59: Other
Q: Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
Q0: General

Q00: General
Q01: Sustainable Development
Q02: Global Commodity Markets
Q1: Agriculture
Q10: General
Q11: Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices
Q12: Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
Q13: Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness
Q14: Agricultural Finance
Q15: Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment
Q16: R&D; Agricultural Technology; Biofuels; Agricultural Extension Services
Q17: Agriculture in International Trade
Q18: Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
Q19: Other
Q2: Renewable Resources and Conservation
Q20: General
Q21: Demand and Supply; Prices
Q22: Fishery; Aquaculture
Q23: Forestry
Q24: Land
Q25: Water
Q26: Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources
Q27: Issues in International Trade
Q28: Government Policy
Q29: Other
Q3: Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
Q30: General
Q31: Demand and Supply; Prices
Q32: Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development
Q34: Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts
Q33: Resource Booms
Q37: Issues in International Trade
Q38: Government Policy
Q39: Other
Q4: Energy
Q40: General
Q41: Demand and Supply; Prices
Q42: Alternative Energy Sources
Q43: Energy and the Macroeconomy
Q47: Energy Forecasting
Q48: Government Policy
Q49: Other
Q5: Environmental Economics
Q50: General
Q51: Valuation of Environmental Effects
Q52: Pollution Control Adoption Costs; Distributional Effects; Employment Effects
Q53: Air Pollution; Water Pollutio; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
Q54: Climate; Natural Disasters; Global Warming
Q55: Technological Innovation
Q56: Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
Q57: Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services; Biodiversity Conservation; Bioeconomics; Industrial Ecology
Q58: Government Policy
Q59: Other
R: Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics
R0: General
R00: General
R1: General Regional Economics
R10: General
R11: Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
R12: Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity
R13: General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies
R14: Land Use Patterns
R15: Econometric and Input–Output Models; Other Models
R19: Other
R2: Household Analysis
R20: General
R21: Housing Demand
R22: Other Demand
R23: Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population; Neighborhood Characteristics
R28: Government Policy
R29: Other
R3: Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location
R30: General
R31: Housing Supply and Markets
R32: Other Spatial Production and Pricing Analysis
R33: Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets
R38: Government Policy
R39: Other
R4: Transportation Economics
R40: General
R41: Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise
R42: Government and Private Investment Analysis; Road Maintenance; Transportation Planning
R48: Government Pricing and Policy
R49: Other
R5: Regional Government Analysis
R50: General
R51: Finance in Urban and Rural Economies
R52: Land Use and Other Regulations
R53: Public Facility Location Analysis; Public Investment and Capital Stock
R58: Regional Development Planning and Policy
R59: Other
Y: Miscellaneous Categories
Y1: Data: Tables and Charts
Y10: Data: Tables and Charts
Y2: Introductory Material
Y20: Introductory Material
Y3: Book Reviews (unclassified)
Y30: Book Reviews (unclassified)
Y4: Dissertations (unclassified)
Y40: Dissertations (unclassified)
Y5: Further Reading (unclassified)
Y50: Further Reading (unclassified)
Y6: Excerpts
Y60: Excerpts
Y7: No Author General Discussions
Y70: No Author General Discussions
Y8: Related Disciplines
Y80: Related Disciplines
Y9: Other
Y90: Other
Y91: Pictures and Maps
Z: Other Special Topics
Z0: General
Z00: General
Z1: Cultural Economics; Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology
Z10: General
Z11: Economics of the Arts and Literature
Z12: Religion
Z13: Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Social and Economic Stratification
Z18: Public Policy
Z19: Other